In “2312”, capitalism as we understand it really only exists on Earth. Much of the rest of the solar system operates under something called the Mondragon Accord. You also mention in the novel that economic systems contain characteristics of both the systems they evolved from as well as what they will inevitably evolve into. What is the Mondragon Accord? Where did the idea come from?
There is a city in the Basque part of Spain called Mondragon, which works economically as a system of nested co-ops, including its banks, so that the community is structured as something not capitalist in the usual sense. It’s worth studying Mondragon’s system to see if there are positive aspects of life there that can be scaled to larger communities, and indeed the world; worth it because capitalism as practiced now is not only strip-mining the biosphere and wrecking it, but it also distributes the useful effects of human labor and natural resources and life-support systems in a grotesque way, very far from justice or sustainability. So we should be on the hunt for how to structure a post-capitalist world, and there are not that many real-world clues. It’s been my habit for many books now, starting back in the 1980s, to explore various post-capitalist scenarios to see what they might reveal.
-Interview with Sci-Fi writer Kim Stanley Robinson on The Atlantic